Acne Vulgaris is a disease of oil glands or sebaceous glands in the skin. These glands sometimes produce more sebum (skin oil) which causes an inflammatory reaction, known as Acne. Vulgaris means commonly seen. It is characterized by papules (non pus containing skin elevation) or pustules (containing pus) or comedones (blackheads).
Causes of Acnes
Our Skin has got numerous tiny pores. If these pores get clogged, the condition results in acnes.
How acnes are developed?
- Acnes mainly result from the blocking of the hair follicle. The before mentioned oil or sebaceous glands are located in the hair follicle. With excessive production of skin oil or sebum, the follicle gets blocked.
- There is a lot of debris along with the germs, build up in the blocked follicle. It becomesa comedo The comedo is of two types i.e. a black head and a white head
- Comedone, if breaks and if the sebum inside comes in direct contact with the air, its top portion turns black giving rise tothe blackhead. Comedo with white top, is known as a white head.
- If the blocked follicle breaks, the inside material causes an inflammatory reaction with swelling and red bumps.
- If the inflammatory reaction occurs deep within the skin, the firm cyst which is tender and painful is often developed.
Some facts about the Acnes
- Though they are commonly noted in teenagers, acnes can occur at any age.
- In most of the cases, cosmetic products including skin lotion and cream and hair styling gel, worsen the acnes.
- Hormonal changes and imbalance triggers the development of acnes.
- Boys tend to develop more and severe forms of acnes because of their hormones, skin texture and excess sebum production.
- Dirt, dust, sexual activities, chocolates etc. are not at the helm of acnes.
- Appearance of white heads and black heads
- Skin lesions with or without inflammation
- Red bumps on the skin
- Pus containing lesions
- Local pain and tenderness
- Local warmth or temperature rise
For Comedone or Mild Acnes
- Local application of Retinoids
- The other option is a Benzoyl peroxide or azelaic acid for topical use.
For Inflammatory Acne
- The topical application of Retinoid, Benzoil peroxide or azelic acid, as per the physician’s prescription.
- Antibiotics are advised in some cases. The commonly used antibiotics are: erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, Oxytetracycline or Doxycycline. These are to be administered either topically or orally.
- UV rays
For Severe Acne
- The Physician chooses Oral dose of antibiotics, to get rid of infection from the body. The different examples are: Tetracycline Doxycycline, Minocycline etc.
- A drug supplementing Vitamin A, known as Isotretinoin is started for nodulocystic acne acnes
- The treatment of underlying disorders like PCOD, Hormonal imbalance and so on.
There are various types of treatments available for the residual scars. These depend upon various factors like the depth and size of the scar, previous treatment taken and their results and so on. These are as listed below.
- Microneedling: Dermaroller
- Microdermabrasion : Skin polishing
- Skin peels –TCA, Jessners, Glycolic, Salicylic, Retinoid, green peel, Arginine peel, Blue peel, Combination peel etc.
- Fractional CO2 Laser and Fractional Erbium to treat Scars
- Subscision with or without skin grafting
- Dermabrasion, depending upon the skin type
Some home remedies to avoid Acnes
Vit B supplements, Green tea, Use of Aloe Vera extract, tea tree oil, papaya juice application, sandalwood paste, orange peel, fresh lime juice application, rose water, potato peel, honey, garlic, cucumber, face packs to soke skin oil etc.
- Gently washing the face at least twice a day with a mild anti bacterial soap. Avoiding harsh chemicals and soaps on the skin.
- Maintaining Hair hygiene. Keeping them away from the face.
- Applying a light, oil free moisturizer regularly on the skin
- Using sulfur plus resorcinol which helps unclogging the pores and also help in healing the acne.